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Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that starts in the cells of the breast. A malignant tumor is a group of cancer cells that can grow into invade surrounding tissues or spread metastasize to distant areas of the body. The disease occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get it, too.
The remainder of this document refers only to breast cancer in women. For information on breast cancer in men, see our document, Breast Cancer in Men. The normal breast To understand breast cancer, it helps to have some basic knowledge about the normal structure of the breasts, shown in the diagram below.
The normal breast
The female breast is made up mainly of lobules milk-producing glandsducts tiny tubes that carry the milk from the lobules to the nippleand stroma fatty tissue and connective tissue surrounding the ducts and lobules, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels.
Most breast cancers begin in the cells that line the ducts ductal cancers. Some begin in the cells that line the lobules lobular cancerswhile a small number start in other tissues.
The lymph lymphatic system of the breast The lymph intraductal papilloma of breast symptoms is important to understand because it is one way breast cancers can spread. This system has several parts. Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped collections of immune system cells cells that are important in fighting infections that are connected by lymphatic vessels.
Lymphatic vessels are like small veins, except that they carry a clear fluid called lymph instead of blood away from the breast. Lymph contains tissue fluid and waste products, as well as immune system cells.
Breast cancer cells can enter lymphatic vessels and begin to grow in lymph nodes. Most lymphatic vessels in the breast connect to lymph nodes under the arm axillary nodes.
Some lymphatic vessels connect to lymph nodes inside the chest internal mammary nodes and those either above or below the collarbone supraclavicular or infraclavicular nodes. If the cancer cells have spread to lymph nodes, there is a intraductal papilloma of breast symptoms chance that the cells could have also gotten into the bloodstream and spread metastasized to other sites in the body.
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The intraductal papilloma of breast symptoms lymph nodes that have breast cancer, the more likely it is intraductal papilloma of breast symptoms the cancer may be found in other organs as well. Because of this, finding cancer in one or more lymph nodes often affects the treatment plan.
Still, not all women with cancer cells in their lymph nodes develop metastases, and some women can have no cancer cells in their lymph nodes and later develop metastases. Benign breast lumps Most breast lumps are not cancerous benign. Still, some may need to be sampled and viewed under a microscope to prove they are not cancer.
Fibrocystic changes Most lumps turn out to be fibrocystic changes. The term fibrocystic refers to fibrosis and cysts. Fibrosis is the formation of scar-like fibrous tissue, and cysts are fluid-filled sacs. Fibrocystic changes can cause breast swelling and pain.
Her breasts may feel lumpy and, sometimes, she may notice a clear or slightly cloudy nipple discharge. Other benign breast lumps Benign breast tumors such as fibroadenomas or intraductal papillomas are abnormal growths, but they are not cancerous and do not spread outside the breast to other organs.
They are not life threatening. Still, some benign breast conditions are important because women with these conditions have a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
- They are made up of gland tissue along with fibrous tissue and blood vessels called fibrovascular tissue.
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General breast cancer terms Here are some of the key words used to describe breast cancer. Carcinoma This is a term used to describe a cancer that begins in the lining layer epithelial cells of organs like the breast.
Nearly all breast cancers are carcinomas either ductal carcinomas or lobular carcinomas. Adenocarcinoma An adenocarcinoma is a type of carcinoma that starts in glandular tissue tissue that makes and secretes a substance.
The ducts and lobules of the breast are glandular tissue intraductal papilloma of breast symptoms make breast milkso cancers starting in these areas are often called adenocarcinomas. Carcinoma in situ This term is used for an early stage of cancer, when it is confined to the layer of cells where it began.
In breast cancer, intraductal papilloma of breast symptoms situ means that the cancer cells remain confined to ducts ductal carcinoma in situ. The cells have not grown into invaded deeper tissues in intraductal papilloma of breast symptoms breast or spread to other organs in the body. Carcinoma cancer pulmonar hipercalcemia situ of the breast is sometimes referred to as non-invasive or pre-invasive breast cancer because it may develop into an invasive breast cancer if left untreated.
When cancer cells are confined to the lobules it is called lobular carcinoma in situ.
Most breast cancers are invasive carcinomas — either invasive ductal carcinoma or invasive lobular carcinoma. Sarcoma Sarcomas are cancers that start in connective tissues such as muscle tissue, fat tissue, or blood vessels.
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Sarcomas of the breast are rare. Types of breast cancers There are several types of breast cancer, but some of them are quite rare.
In some cases a single breast tumor can be a combination of these types or be a mixture of invasive and in situ cancer. Ductal carcinoma in situ Ductal carcinoma in situ DCIS; also known as intraductal carcinoma is the most common type of non-invasive breast cancer. DCIS means that the cancer cells are inside the ducts but have not spread through the walls of the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue. About 1 in 5 new breast cancer cases will be DCIS.
Nearly all women diagnosed at this early stage of breast cancer can be cured.
Intraductal papilloma - Medical Meaning and Pronunciation
A mammogram is often the best way to find DCIS early. When DCIS is diagnosed, the pathologist a doctor specializing in diagnosing disease from tissue samples will look for areas of dead or dying cancer cells, called tumor necrosis, within the tissue sample.
If necrosis is present, the tumor is likely to be more aggressive. The term comedocarcinoma is often used to describe DCIS with necrosis. Invasive or infiltrating ductal carcinoma IDC starts in a milk passage duct of the breast, breaks through the wall of the duct, and grows into the fatty tissue of the breast. At this point, it may be able to spread metastasize to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system and bloodstream.
About 8 of 10 invasive breast cancers are infiltrating ductal carcinomas. Invasive or infiltrating lobular carcinoma Invasive lobular carcinoma ILC starts in the milk-producing glands lobules. Like IDC, it can spread metastasize to other parts of the body. About 1 in 10 invasive breast cancers is an ILC.
Înțelesul "ductal" în dicționarul Engleză
Invasive lobular carcinoma may be harder to detect by a mammogram than invasive ductal carcinoma. Usually there is no single lump or tumor.
Instead, inflammatory breast cancer IBC makes the skin of the breast look red and feel warm. It also may give the breast skin a thick, pitted appearance that looks a lot like an orange peel. Doctors now know that these changes are not caused by inflammation or infection, but by cancer intraductal papilloma of breast symptoms blocking lymph vessels in the skin.
The affected breast may become larger or firmer, tender, or itchy.