In the adult organism Bcl-2 expression is generally confined to cells that are rapidly dividing and differentiating. In lymphocytes, Bcl-2 is highly expressed in T-cells, pro-B cells and mature B-cells where lifespan is extended while downregulated in germinal center B-cells where apoptosis forms part of the developmental pathway in order to select only cells producing antibodies with high avidity Overexpression of Bcl-2 is common in many types of cancer, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leukaemias, adenocarcinomas e.
Among the latter, strong Bcl-2 positivity has particularly been demonstrated in gastrointestinal stromal tumor, solitary fibrous tumor, and synovial sarcoma, while fibromatosis and "malignant fibrous histiocytoma" are usually negative. Among malignant lymphomas, Bcl-2 protein overexpression is often caused by chromosomal translocation 14;18 with Bcl-2 gene rearrangement.
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This is especially seen in follicular lymphoma. Bcl-6 in ggl limf Bcl-6 in limfom folicular ALK anaplastic large cell lymphoma kinase is a protein, kDa, a transmembrane receptor tyrosin kinase, presumably receptor for the growth factor pleiotrophin.
In normal tissues, ALK protein is expressed by only few cells within the developing and mature nervous system glial cells, neurons, endothelial cells and pericytes ; ALK gene is translocated in ALCL, but also in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and in diffuse large B cell lymphoma DLBCL.
They also produce more autoantibodies than normal CD5 negative B-cells. Lack of CD5 in the latter signifies a worse prognosis.
CD5 has been detected in some cases of thymic carcinoma and atypical thymoma. Other carcinomas are CD5 negative.
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CD5 in normal T cells CD5 in MZL CD10 CD10 is a single-chain cell surface glycoprotein, kDa, also designated common acute lymhoblastic leukaemia antigen CALLA CD10 is present on the cell surface of bone marrow stem cells and myelopoietic cells including neutrophilsfollicular centre cells, few mature Blymphocytes; CD10 is also found in enterocytes in the upper part of the intestinal tract brush border,in liver bile canaliculikidney glomerular and proximal tubular cellspulmonary alveolar is hpv cancer genetic, myoepithelial cells of breast.
CD10 is found in some cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma; small lymphocytic lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, and lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma are negative. CD20 appears on the surface of the pre-B lymphocyte between the time of light chain rearrangement and expression of intact surface immunoglobulin papillary urothelial carcinoma types is lost just before terminal B-cell differentiation into plasma cells.
Plasma cell neoplasms are as a rule CD20 negative. CD20 normal CD20 in CLL CD23 - low affinity IgE receptor, Leu, FceRII; - In humans, main cellular expression of CD23 papillary urothelial carcinoma types paraziti mambo in B-lymphocytes strong expression in activated germinal center B-cells, weaker staining of resting mantle zone B-cellsmonocytes, follicular dendritic cells FDCs predominately in the apical papillary urothelial carcinoma types zone cancer malign tratament the germinal center; - CD23 is typically expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia CLL - the strongest expression is characteristically present in proliferation centers.
Some cases of mycosis fungoides can have significant CD30 expression; Expression of CD30 has also been demonstrated in embryonal carcinoma and some seminomas. CD45 is lost in papillary urothelial carcinoma types and plasma cells. It is not detected on differentiated cells of other tissues.
CD45 has intrinsic tyrosine phosphatase activity and is essential for development and effector functions, playing an important role in signal transduction, inhibition or upregulation of various immunological functions. CD45 is detected in the large majority of haematolymphoid neoplasms, i. CD antibodies detect a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately kD, localized in the cytoplasm, often with relation to lysosomes.
Positive staining is seen in different types of macrophages of monocyte lineage and antibodies also reacts with myeloid precursor cells in the bone marrow. Expressed in fibrous-histiocytic tumours and Papillary urothelial carcinoma types cell histiocytosis, subtypes of myeloid leukaemia depending on the Ab usedsome epithelial neoplasms, epithelioid cells of some malignant melanomas CD68 in celule Kupffer CD31 transmembrane glycoprotein, kDa, also designated platelet-endothelium cell adhesion molecule PECAM-1belonging to the immunoglobulin super family.
CD31 is strongly expressed in endothelial cells and weakly expressed in megakaryocytes, platelets, occasional plasma cells, lymphocytes especially marginal zone B-cells, peripheral T-cells and neutrophils.
CD31 is expressed in the vast majority of all types of vascular neoplasms, such as hemangioendothelioma, angiofibroma, hemangioma, and angiosarcoma. CD 31 is papillary urothelial carcinoma types expressed in most cases of Kaposi sarcoma CD31 in hemangioendoteliom infiltrativ in intestin CD34 CD34 also named myeloid progenitor cell antigen is a heavily glycosylated type I transmembrane protein, kDa; role in adhesion; CD34 is found in most endothelia, expressed on the luminal surface and membrane processes interdigitating between endothelial cells, but is absent from large veins and arteries.
CD34 is detected in myeloid blasts in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukaemia; Also expressed in lymphoblasts in most cases of B-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. This is tissue-specific and present only in endothelial cells, megakaryocytes and thrombocytes FVIII is expressed in most tumours with endothelial differentiation.
In angiosarcoma, Kaposi sarcoma and Dabska tumour, the antigen can be demonstrated in a majority of, but not not all, cases Due to the specificity of the antigen, rather than the sensitivity, Papillary urothelial carcinoma types is often a part of the panel for the identification of benign and malignant vascular neoplasms, along with CD31 and CD The protein is a tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor for stem cell factor SCF ; CD is expressed in mast cells, melanocytes and interstitial cells of Cajal; The cells particularly the mast cells show a strong membrane as well as cytoplasmic staining.
The CK family is a highly complex multigene family of polypeptides, the molecular weight of which ranges from 40 to 68 kDa. Until now, 20 distinct CKs have been revealed excluding the so-called trichocytic keratins present in hair and nail-forming epithelia only.
Clone CAM 5. The p63 gene is located at chromosome 3q and belongs to the p53 gene family. The same tumours are usually expressing cytokeratin 5. However, p63 often shows a more extended reaction. An important criterion for the diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma is the absence of basal cells.
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As these can be difficult to identify in routine sections, immunohistochemical identification of p63 and cytokeratin 5 may increase the sensitivity and specificity. Since negative staining for high molecular weight cytokeratin HMW-CK in atypical prostate glands may not be sufficient for a definitive diagnosis of malignancy, p63 may enhance the ability to diagnose limited prostate cancer.
A cocktail staining is applicable. The combination of p63 and HMW-CK increases the sensitivity of basal cell detection P63 is used in identifying invasive foci in breast carcinomas which lack the myoepithelial cell layer.
P63 in prostata normala CEA A glycoprotein comp of Ig superfamily adhesion molecule ; In normal adult tissue, CEA is expressed in the apical border and, to a lesser extent papillary urothelial carcinoma types the cytoplasm, of the columnar cells of colon, small intestine, and stomach surface epithelium, mucous neck cells and weakly in pyloric mucous cellspancreatic ducts, secretory epithelia of sweat glands, metastatic cancer of the liver treatment epithelial cells of the tongue, esophagus and uterine cervix, and urothelium.
The prostate is negative apart from urothelium lined secretory ducts. CEA is expressed in epithelial papillary urothelial carcinoma types membranes and in the cytoplasm of the cells in almost all cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma as well as a high proportion of adenocarcinomas of the salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, biliary tract, pancreas, small intestine, lung, uterine cervix and ovary mucinous type.
CEA in colon normal Cadherins Cadherins are a family of calcium-dependent transmembrane cell adhesion glycoproteins. In connecting cells they comprise a part of the zonula adherens and desmosomes. The following tumours are almost always positive: adenocarcinoma of colorectum, stomach, pancreas, prostate, endometrium, uterine cervix, and thyroid.
Among ovarian carcinomas, the mucinous type is almost always positive, while varying positivity is seen in the other types. EMA is present in a variety of glandular secretory epithelia such as breast, eccrine and apocrine glands, and pancreas, whereas little or no EMA is expressed in the gastrointestinal epithelium, endocervical epithelium, and prostate glands.
It is abundantly expressed in central and peripheral neural tissues, particularly in the retina and in the neurons of the sensory pathways it is also expressed in steroid producing cells adrenal cortical cells, testicular Leydig cells, ovarian theca interna cellstesticular Sertoli cells, rete testis, ovarian surface epithelium, some neuroendocrine cells, breast papillary urothelial carcinoma types, eccrine sweat glands, hair follicular cells, thymic epithelial cells, endometrial stromal cells, and fat cells Calretinin is also expressed by both normal and neoplastic mesothelial cells; it is an useful marker for the identification of malignant mesotheliomas of the epithelial type and papillary urothelial carcinoma types the differentiation of these malignancies of lung adenocarcinoma In calretinin positive cells, the protein is generally found in both the cytoplasm and nuclei.
Mezoteliom CDX2 Cdx2, a human homeobox gene, encodes a transcription factor, which is involved in proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. The CDX2 protein is widely expressed in intestinal epithelium from the duodenum to the rectum. The majority of colorectal adenocarcinomas, a large part of gastric adenocarcinomas, carcinoids of the GI tract as well as adenocarcinomas of the ovary, urinary bladder and pancreas show CDX2 expression. Antibodies to CDX2 may be useful for identification of both primary and metastatic tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, including carcinoids Cromogranin chromogranins comprise a family of acid calciumbinding glycoproteins closely associated with the matrix of dense-core neurosecretory renal cancer clear cell type in virtually all neuroendocrine NE cells and neurons.
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Probably, these proteins are involved in papillary urothelial carcinoma types and processing of neuropeptides and peptide hormones. SYP may also be detected in other neural crest derived tumours like oligodendroglioma, astrocytoma and ependymoma.
Moreover synaptophysin is detected in NE tumours like pancreatic islet tumours, carcinoid and neuroendocrine carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma, and pituitary and parathyroid adenomas. Also adrenal cortical tumours stain for synaptophysin.
Syn in carcinoid intestinal Actina- clona HHF35 Labels myocardial, skeletal and smooth muscle cells as well as myoepithelial cells. The antibody recognizes rhabdomyosarcomas, leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas, and also reacts with 'myofibroblasts' in the stroma of certain tumors including many carcinomas Actina - clona 1A4 This antibody labels smooth muscle cells, myofibroblasts and myoepithelial cells, and is useful for the identification of leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas and pleomorphic adenomas Actina- LMS a smooth muscle-specific protein involved in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Calponin a developmentally regulated protein thought to play a role in the regulation of the thin filamentassociated system of smooth muscle contraction.
Caldesmon in leiomiom Desmin Desmin is an intermediate filament protein 53 kDa expressed in all striated muscle cells and most smooth muscle cells; Desmin play no role in contractility but serves to maintain the orientation of actin and myosin filaments and may also play a role in nuclear transcription Desmin is detected in most tumours of myogenic origin, e.
S protein may be found in the cell membranes, cytoplasm and nuclei; S beta protein is present in glial cells, Schwann cells and satellite cells, melanocytes, myoepithelial cells, some glandular epithelia breast, kidneyskeletal and heart muscle cells, fat cells and chondrocytes, and follicular dendritic cells.
The immunohistochemical evaluation of S beta protein expression is important in the diagnosis of undifferentiated malignant tumours of unknown primary origin and should be included in the so-called primary panel. S is a very sensitive marker for malignant melanoma of all types, a negative staining is exceedingly rare. Because of its papillary urothelial carcinoma types specificity, other markers should be included in a panel for malignant melanoma, such as vimentin and Melan- A.
Vimentina Vimentin 57 kDa is the most ubiquituos intermediate filament papillary urothelial carcinoma types and the first to be expressed during cell differentiation. All primitive cell types express vimentin but in most non-mesenchymal cells it is replaced by other intermediate filament proteins during differentiation.
Vimentin is expressed in a wide variety of mesenchymal cell types fibroblasts, endothelial cells etc. However, in non-vascular smooth muscle cells, vimentin is often replaced by desmin. In striated muscle, vimetin is also replaced by desmin. However, during regeneration, vimentin is reexpressed.
Cells of papillary urothelial carcinoma types lymfo-haemopoietic system lymphocytes, macrophages etc. Vimentin is also found in mesoderm derived epithelia, e. Sarcomas e.
Mesoderm derived carcinomas like renal cell carcinoma, adrenal cortical carcinoma and adenocarcinomas from endometrium and ovary usually express vimentin. Also thyroid carcinomas are vimentin positive. Any low differentiated or sarcomatoid carcinoma may express some vimentin. Vimentina in limfocite din amigdala Vimentina in glanda mamara Neurofilamente NFP is a class 4 intermediate filament protein comprising three heteropolymeric polypeptide units, 70 kda, kda and kDa.
NFP is represented in virtually all neurons. NFP can be demonstrated in the large majority of differentiated neuronal tumours: ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, etc. NF in meningiom NF in neurofibrom cel Schwann si fibroblaste neg Myo D1 The MyoD1 protein is a 45 kDa nuclear phosphoprotein which papillary urothelial carcinoma types myogenesis through transcriptional activation of muscle-specific genes; Nuclear expression of MyoD1 is restricted to skeletal muscle tissue and has been demonstrated to be a sensitive marker of myogenic differentiation; The antibody papillary urothelial carcinoma types labels the nuclei of myoblasts in developing skeletal muscle tissue, whereas the majority of adult skeletal muscle is negative; MyoD1 immunostaining has been demonstrated in the majority of rhabdomyosarcomas of various histological subtypes.
Myogenin Myogenin belongs to a family of regulatory proteins essential for muscle development.
Expression of myogenin is restricted to cells of skeletal muscle origin, and appears to be inversely related to the degree of cellular differentiation. The antibody recognizes an epitope located in the amino acid region of the myogenin protein. It labels nuclei paraziti yok eden yiyecekler the majority of human rhabdomyosarcomas and Wilms' tumors Myogenin in rabdomiosarcom Cancer antigen CA is a membrane mucin-like glycoprotein greater than kDa.
The specific function is unknown. In foetal tissue, CA is expressed in the amnion, coelomic and mullerian epithelium. In adult tissue CA is primarily expressed in mesothelial cells and in the luminal surface of epithelial cells of the fallopian tube, endometrium and endocervix. CA is expressed in almost all cases of epithelial malignant mesothelioma and ovarian serous papillary urothelial carcinoma types CA is also expressed in the majority of primary peritoneal carcinoma and ovarian clear cell and endometrioid adenocarcinomas.
CA in mezoteliu Ca in mezoteliom CA in carcinom ovarian AFP alfa feto protein a 70 kDa glycoprotein, synthesized by the cells of the embryonic yolk sac, fetal liver and fetal intestinal tract. Expression of AFP has been demonstrated in many hepatocellular carcinomas and in gonadal and extragonadal germ cells tumors, including yolk sac tumors. The antibody may be useful for the identification of non-neoplastic and neoplastic liver diseases, yolk sac tumors and mixed germ cell tumors AFP in tumora sac yolk Estrogen receptor Estrogen receptor ER belongs papillary urothelial carcinoma types the steroid receptor superfamily of nuclear receptors; ER is mainly expressed in tumours of female sex steroid hormone responsive tissues such as : the mammary gland, endometrium, and ovary.
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HER-2 is a proto-oncogene, i. In human cancers HER-2 is activated via gene amplification, which is a genomic mutation where a small fragment at chromosome band 17qq21 papillary urothelial carcinoma types multiplied in a cell up to folds.
Metastases usually have the same amplification status as the primary tumours. HER-2 amplification and over-expression are typical features of hormone receptor negative, rapidly growing histologic grade tumours.
Of the histologic types, Pagets papillary urothelial carcinoma types is papillary urothelial carcinoma types invariably HER-2 positive, whereas only a small minority of lobular and tubular carcinomas shows HER-2 amplification.
HER-2 amplification and over-expression can also be found in intestinal type gastric and gastroesophageal carcinomas, ovarian carcinomas, high grade endometrial carcinomas and some salivary duct tumours AMACR PS : - is an enzyme that is involved in bile acid biosynthesis and -oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids.
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It is primarily produced papillary urothelial carcinoma types the prostatic epithelium and the epithelial lining of the periurethal glands. PSA is strongly expressed in both normal and neoplastic prostatic tissue PSA in carcinomul de prostata WT-1 The WT1 gene papillary urothelial carcinoma types at chromosome 11p13 codes for a transcription factor, a DNA-binding nucleoprotein, kDa, that plays a role primarily in the development of genitourinary organs.
In normal epithelia, nuclear WT1 expression is largely restricted to ovary surface epithelium and inclusion cysts and fallopian tube, while WT1 is not found in endometrial or cervical epithelium. Also metanephric adenoma is positive Among nonepithelial tumours, nuclear WT1 is strongly expressed in the large majority of malignant mesothelioma and sex cord-stromal tumours.
WT-1 papillary urothelial carcinoma types mezoteliul normal WT-1 in mezoteliom Melan-A Melan-A is a melanocyte differentiation antigen, recognized by autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
Using the monoclonal antibody A, staining is also seen in steroid hormone producing cells: adrenal cortexgranulosa and theca cells of the ovary and Leydig cells of the testis. This is due to cross reaction as the Melan-A gene is not detected in these cells. In metastastic melanomas the staining may be patchy and somewhat less often positive than in the corresponding primary tumours. In desmoplastic melanoma the staining reaction is frequently patchy or negative.
Melan-A is also demonstrated in other tumours of melanocytic origin or differentiation i. Using the antibody A, staining is furthermore seen in steroid hormone producing tumours: adrenocortical adenoma and carcinomasex cord-stromal tumour of the ovary and Leydig cell tumour of the testis.
However, spindle cell and desmoplastic malignant melanoma are MSA negative or only focally positive Being a highly specific marker, MSA has been widely used for the identification of melanocytic differentiation.
However, MSA is generally a less sensitive marker than Melan-A and microphthalmia transcription factor Mitfparticularly in the dermal component of benign melanocytic tumours and in spindle cell melanoma.
MSA is useful for the identification of PEComa together with alpha smooth muscle actinbut also here Melan-A may give a stronger staining. Also the C-cell derived medullary carcinomas are positive for TTF1 immunoreactivity in virtually all cases lower frequencies in some studies being possibly due to technical causes.
Most anaplastic thyroid carcinomas have been reported negative. Inhibin is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone comprised of an and a subunit.