Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that starts in the cells of the breast. A malignant tumor is a group of cancer cells that can grow into invade surrounding tissues or spread metastasize to distant areas of the body. The disease occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get it, too. The remainder of this document refers only to breast cancer in women.
For information on breast cancer in men, see our document, Breast Cancer in Men. The normal breast To understand breast cancer, it helps to have some papilloma dcis knowledge about the normal structure of the breasts, shown in the diagram below. The female breast is made up mainly of lobules milk-producing glandsducts tiny tubes that carry the milk from the lobules to the nippleand stroma fatty tissue and connective tissue surrounding the ducts and lobules, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels.
- Papillomatosis and acanthosis
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Чем больше это число, тем труднее его найти.
Стратмор решил, что лучше взять его к себе и заставить трудиться на благо АНБ, чем позволить противодействовать агентству извне.
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Most breast cancers begin in the cells that line the ducts ductal cancers. Some begin in the cells that line the lobules lobular cancerswhile a small number start in other tissues.
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The lymph lymphatic system of the breast The lymph system is important to understand because it is one way breast cancers can spread. This system has several parts. Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped collections of immune system cells cells that are important in fighting infections that are connected by lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels are like small veins, except that they carry a clear fluid called lymph instead of blood papilloma dcis from the breast.
Lymph contains tissue fluid and waste products, as well as immune system cells.
Breast cancer cells can enter lymphatic vessels and begin to grow in lymph nodes. Most lymphatic vessels in the breast connect to lymph nodes under the arm axillary nodes. Some lymphatic vessels connect to lymph nodes inside the chest internal mammary nodes and those either above or below the collarbone supraclavicular or infraclavicular nodes.
If papilloma dcis cancer cells have papilloma dcis to lymph nodes, there is a higher chance that the cells could have also gotten into the bloodstream and spread metastasized to other sites in the body. The more lymph nodes that have breast cancer, the more likely it is that the cancer may be found in other organs as well.
Because of this, finding cancer in one or more lymph nodes often affects the treatment plan. Still, not all women with cancer cells in their lymph nodes develop metastases, and some women can have no cancer cells in their lymph nodes and later develop metastases. Benign breast lumps Most breast lumps are not cancerous benign.
Still, some may need to be sampled and viewed under a microscope to prove they are not cancer. Fibrocystic changes Most lumps turn out to be fibrocystic changes.
Localizare, dac a fost specificat de chirurg Dimensiunea maxim a metastazelor macroscopic vizibile Descrierea macroscopic 4 Modificri macroscopice suplimetare Ex: biopsii anterioare, chiste, implante 5 Descrierea eantioanelor prelevate pentru prelucrarea la parafin, banc de esuturi, esut prospt pentru diagnostic molecular Descrierea microscopic 1 Tumor a. Papilloma dcis de esuturi invadate, repere anatomice invadate Invazia vascular i perineural papilloma dcis Interesarea pielii i a mamelonului Descrierea microscopic Fa de componenta invaziv i fa de componenta in situ 3 Statusul limfoganglionilor Numr total, localizare dac aceasta a fost specificat de chirurg, dimesiunea metastazei maxime i extensia extraganglionar Descrierea microscopic 4 Metastaze la distan dac acestea exist 5 Statusul receptorilor, hormonali al HER i Ki67 opional Clasificarea pTNM Primary tumor T TX: Primary tumor cannot be assessed includes cases with tumor present at margin by macroscopic examination, because total extent of tumor cannot be assessed T0: No evidence of primary tumor Tis: Carcinoma in situ Papilloma dcis DCIS : Ductal carcinoma in situ Tis LCIS papilloma dcis Lobular carcinoma in situ Tis Pagets : Pagets disease of the nipple NOT associated with invasive carcinoma or carcinoma in situ DCIS or LCIS in the underlying breast parenchyma. Carcinomas in the breast parenchyma associated with Pagets disease are categorized based on the size and characteristics of the parenchymal disease, although the presence of Pagets disease should still be noted. Dimpling of the skin, nipple retraction or any other skin changes except those described under T4b and T4d may occur in T without changing the classification.
Papilloma dcis term fibrocystic refers to fibrosis and cysts. Fibrosis is the formation of scar-like fibrous tissue, and cysts are fluid-filled sacs. Fibrocystic changes can cause breast swelling and pain. Her breasts may feel lumpy and, sometimes, she may notice a clear or slightly cloudy nipple discharge. Other benign breast lumps Benign breast tumors such as fibroadenomas or intraductal papillomas are abnormal growths, but they are not cancerous and do not hpv cancer contagious outside the breast to other organs.
They are not life threatening. Still, some benign breast conditions are important because women with these conditions have a higher risk of developing papilloma dcis cancer.
General breast cancer terms Here are some of the key words used to describe breast cancer. Carcinoma This is a term used to describe papilloma dcis cancer that begins in the lining layer papilloma virus negativo cells of organs like the breast. Papilloma dcis all breast cancers are carcinomas either ductal carcinomas or lobular carcinomas.
Adenocarcinoma An adenocarcinoma is a type of papillomas nedir that starts in glandular tissue tissue that papilloma dcis and secretes a substance.
The ducts and lobules of the breast are glandular tissue they make breast milkso cancers starting in these areas are often called adenocarcinomas.
Carcinoma in situ This term is used for an early stage of cancer, when it is confined to the layer of cells where it began. In breast cancer, in situ means that the cancer cells remain confined to ducts ductal carcinoma in situ. The cells have not grown into invaded deeper tissues in the breast or spread to other organs in the body.
Carcinoma in situ of the breast is papilloma dcis referred to as non-invasive or pre-invasive breast cancer because it may develop into an invasive breast cancer if left untreated.
When cancer cells are confined to the lobules it is called lobular carcinoma in situ. Most breast cancers are invasive carcinomas — either invasive ductal carcinoma or invasive lobular carcinoma. Sarcoma Sarcomas are cancers that start in connective tissues such as muscle tissue, fat tissue, or blood vessels. Sarcomas of the breast are papilloma dcis. Types of breast cancers There are several types of breast cancer, but some of papilloma dcis are quite rare.
In some cases a single breast tumor can be a combination of these types or be a mixture of invasive and in situ cancer.
- Papilloma virus tumore allutero
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Ductal carcinoma in situ Ductal carcinoma in papilloma dcis DCIS; also known papilloma dcis intraductal carcinoma is the most common type of non-invasive breast cancer. DCIS means that the cancer cells are inside the ducts but have not spread through the walls of the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue. About 1 in 5 new breast cancer cases will be DCIS. Nearly all women diagnosed at this early stage of breast cancer can be cured.
A mammogram is often the best way to find DCIS papilloma dcis. When DCIS is diagnosed, the pathologist a doctor specializing in diagnosing disease from tissue samples will look for areas of dead or dying cancer cells, called tumor necrosis, within the tissue sample.
If necrosis is present, the tumor is likely to be more aggressive. The term comedocarcinoma is often papilloma dcis to describe DCIS with necrosis.
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Invasive or infiltrating ductal carcinoma IDC starts in a milk passage duct of the breast, breaks through the wall of the duct, and grows into the fatty papilloma dcis of the breast. At this point, it may be able to spread papilloma dcis to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system and bloodstream.
About 8 of 10 invasive breast cancers are infiltrating ductal carcinomas. Invasive or infiltrating lobular carcinoma Invasive lobular carcinoma ILC starts in the milk-producing glands lobules.
Like IDC, it can spread metastasize to other parts of the body. About 1 in 10 endometrial cancer and obesity breast cancers is an ILC.
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Invasive lobular carcinoma may be harder to detect by a mammogram than papilloma dcis ductal carcinoma. Usually there is no single lump or tumor. Instead, inflammatory breast cancer IBC makes the skin of the breast look red and feel warm.
It also may give the breast skin la virus de papiloma humano que es thick, pitted appearance that looks a lot like an orange peel.
Doctors now know that these changes are not caused by inflammation or infection, but papilloma dcis cancer cells blocking lymph vessels in the skin. The affected breast papilloma dcis become larger or firmer, tender, or itchy. In its early stages, inflammatory breast cancer is often mistaken for an infection in the breast called mastitis.
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Often this cancer is first treated as an infection with antibiotics. If the symptoms are caused by cancer, they will not improve, and a biopsy will find cancer cells.
Because there is no actual lump, it may not show up on a mammogram, which may make it even harder to find it early. This type of breast cancer tends to have a papilloma dcis chance of spreading and a worse outlook prognosis than typical invasive ductal or lobular cancer. For more details about this condition, see our document, Inflammatory Breast Cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer: This term is used to describe breast cancers usually invasive ductal carcinomas whose cells lack estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors, and do not have an excess of the HER2 protein on their surfaces.
Breast cancers with these characteristics tend to occur more often in younger women and in African-American women. Triple-negative breast cancers tend to grow and spread more quickly than most other types of breast cancer. Because the tumor cells lack these certain receptors, neither hormone therapy nor drugs that papilloma dcis HER2 are effective treatments but chemotherapy can still be useful if needed.
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Paget disease of the nipple: This type of breast cancer starts in the breast ducts and spreads to the skin of the nipple and then to papilloma dcis areola, the dark circle around the nipple. The skin of the nipple and areola often appears crusted, scaly, and red, with areas of bleeding or oozing. The woman may notice burning or itching.
Paget disease is almost always associated with either ductal carcinoma in situ DCIS or infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Treatment often requires mastectomy. If no lump can be felt in the breast tissue, and the biopsy shows DCIS but no invasive cancer, the outlook prognosis is excellent. If invasive cancer is present, the prognosis is not as good, and the cancer will need to be staged and treated like any other invasive cancer.
Phyllodes tumor: This very rare breast papilloma dcis develops in the stroma connective tissue of the breast, intraductal papilloma contrast to papilloma dcis, which develop in the ducts or lobules.
Other names for these tumors include phylloides tumor and cystosarcoma phyllodes. These tumors are usually benign but on rare occasions may be malignant. Benign phyllodes tumors are treated by removing the tumor along with a margin of normal breast tissue.
A malignant phyllodes tumor is treated by papilloma dcis it along with a wider margin of normal tissue, or by mastectomy. Surgery is often all that is needed, but these cancers may not respond as well to the other treatments used for more common breast cancers.
When a malignant phyllodes tumor has spread, it can be treated with the chemotherapy given for soft-tissue sarcomas this is discussed papilloma dcis detail in our document, Soft-tissue Sarcomas.
Angiosarcoma: This is a form of cancer that starts in cells that line blood vessels or papilloma dcis vessels. It rarely occurs in the breasts. When it does, it usually develops as a complication of previous radiation treatments. This is an extremely rare complication of breast radiation therapy that can develop about 5 to 10 years after radiation.
Înțelesul "ductal" în dicționarul Engleză
Angiosarcoma can also occur in the arms of women who develop lymphedema as a result of lymph node surgery or radiation therapy to treat breast cancer.
Treatment is generally papilloma dcis same as for other sarcomas. Special types of invasive breast carcinoma There are some special types of breast cancer that are sub-types of invasive carcinoma. These are often named after features seen when they are viewed under the microscope, like the ways the cells are arranged. Some of these may have a better prognosis than standard infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
These include: Adenoid cystic or adenocystic carcinoma Low grade adenosquamous carcinoma this is a type of metaplastic carcinoma Medullary carcinoma Papillary carcinoma Tubular carcinoma Some sub-types have the same or maybe worse prognosis than standard infiltrating ductal carcinoma. These include: Metaplastic carcinoma most types, including spindle cell and squamous Micropapillary carcinoma Mixed carcinoma has features of both invasive ductal and lobular In general, all of these sub-types are still papilloma dcis like standard infiltrating ductal carcinoma.