I am immensely grateful, too, to Professor V. Fedorov of Moscow State University for encouraging the project in its early stages and to Peter Beevor, Tommy Murtagh and Ewa Sadowska, who generously read entire drafts and made many useful suggestions from which the final version has benefited considerably.
- Ты так не считаешь. - Отчет безукоризненный. - Выходит, по-твоему, Стратмор лжет. - Не в этом дело, - дипломатично ответила Мидж, понимая, что ступает на зыбкую почву. - Еще не было случая, чтобы в моих данных появлялись ошибки.
Such shortcomings as remain should be debited to my account. Finally, I would seed wart on foot pictures to thank my editor at Palgrave for timing the publication of this book, long in preparation, to coincide with the th anniversary of the founding in of St Petersburg, a city so closely and so poignantly associated with Pavel Pestel and the Decembrists. Materialy i dokumenty. Dela verkhovnogo ugolovnogo suda i sledstvennoi komissii, A.
Pokrovskii, M. Nechkina, V. Kozlov, S.
Mironenko eds Moscow, —19 vols. When I discussed this matter with those who shared my way of thinking we started to picture the happiness, as we understood it, that Russia would then enjoy. As we did so, I must admit that we became so delighted and excited that we were all prepared not only to accept but to actively propose everything needed to achieve the full realisation, complete reinforcement and implementation of this order of things.
Вздор! - крикнул Хейл. - Лифт подключен к энергоснабжению главного здания. Я видел схему.
Materialy Papillomavirus bij mannen,vol. This page intentionally left blank Part I The Formative Years This page intentionally left blank 1 The Roots of Decembrism The Russian Empire at the beginning of the nineteenth century covered a vast territory extending from the Vistula and eastern Poland, taking in the whole of north-east Asia, across to the Bering Straits and beyond to Alaska.
The population of this huge landmass doubled from 30 million around the time of the French Revolution to almost 60 million in the space of 50 years. But with its enormous expanse and large population Russia was economically among the most backward of countries.
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This was largely due to its political and social structure. By the s tsarist autocracy held absolute seed wart on foot pictures over an estimated 20 million serfs or one-third of the entire population of the empire. To this must be added a further 15 million peasants bound by various categories of servitude.
In spite of these evident social and political deficiencies the dawn of a new century, marked by the accession in of the charismatic and reputedly liberal young Tsar Alexander I, generated a mood of unprecedented optimism in Russia.
There was a widespread confidence, to a considerable extent fostered by the tsar himself, that he would initiate long overdue seed wart on foot pictures badly needed social and political reform. It culminated in the first armed political rising in Russian history and its name derives retrospectively from the month in which the 3 4 The Decembrist Pavel Pestel insurgency occurred in St Petersburg in The movement consisted of a sequence of secret societies, modelled on Masonic lodges, the first of which, the Union of Salvation, was headed by young army officers Sergei Trubetskoi, Nikita Muraviev and his cousin Alexander Muraviev.
Recently returned from the post-Napoleonic Wars of Liberation in Western Europe and impressed by European political and social institutions, they were typical of the patriotic and idealistic sons of the gentry anxious to initiate and implement fundamental changes in Russian politics and society.
The Decembrist Pavel Pestel: Russia's First Republican
In Trubetskoi and the Muravievs formed a new, more broadly based society, the Union of Welfare which recruited more than members. In its governing directorate declared the Union defunct as a way of ridding the organisation of unreliable and unwanted members.
This move resulted in the division of the rump of the Union of Welfare into two parts. These were the Northern Society, which was formed largely by junior officers of the guards regiments stationed in St Petersburg, and the Southern Society whose members were seed wart on foot pictures from the regiments of the Second Army based in Ukraine at Tulchin.
Both groups soon started to elaborate constitutional projects for a new Russia. Essentially a military junta, it was to implement a constitution whereby Seed wart on foot pictures would become a strictly centralised republic with a unicameral legislative assembly which would guarantee all citizens of Russia fundamental civil rights. However, a very different future for Russia was seed wart on foot pictures out in the Constitution of the leader of the Northern Society, Nikita Muraviev.
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According to this, a constituent assembly would be convened to determine the institutions of state but the Muraviev programme already defined Russia as a constitutional monarchy with a powerful federal structure similar to that of the United States.
Although the Northern and Southern societies kept in constant touch with each other, their discussions about a concerted plan of action made negligible progress.
- Во-первых, у нас есть фильтр, именуемый «Сквозь строй», - он не пропустит ни один вирус.
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Хоть что-нибудь, - настаивал Беккер.
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Вот хочу попробовать сделать кое-какую перенастройку да проверить электронную почту, - сказал Хейл.
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The only points of agreement reached were that representatives of the two societies should meet again in to find a way forward and that the death of Alexander I, who was still only 45 years old inwould be the signal for action. But the Southern Society had its own problems. Its organisational complexities were compounded by the location of seed wart on foot pictures of its branches in the Ukrainian villages of Vasilkov and Kamenka, both far enough seed wart on foot pictures from Tulchin to be an added inconvenience.
Untilit also had a small outpost in the Moldavian capital, Kishinev. In an effort to counter the difficulties posed by distance, members of the Southern Society met and conferred at the January Epiphany trade-fair in Kiev in and in the following three years. However, it was not betrayal that brought about the rapid dénouement of seed wart on foot pictures nine-year-old movement but the unexpected death of Alexander I in the Black Sea town of Taganrog on 19 November It was generally expected that he would be succeeded by the next seed wart on foot pictures line to the throne, his brother Constantine.
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This confusion precipitated a two-week interregnum during which the Decembrists in St Petersburg, under the energetic leadership of the poet Kondratii Ryleev, decided to make their move. The death of Alexander I was, after all, the agreed signal for action.
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They learned that the swearing of the loyal oath to Nicholas by all the regiments in St Petersburg was scheduled for 14 December. By that afternoon 6 The Decembrist Pavel Pestel insurgent troops under the command of 30 officers and the direction of six civilian members of the secret society were drawn up on Cancer hormonal luminal a Square awaiting further instructions.
Nicholas and his generals, nervously imagining the number of mutinous troops to be four times greater than it actually was, were at first thoroughly disconcerted. As things stood, there was a real possibility that the Decembrists would seize the Winter Palace and the Peter-Paul Fortress and place the imperial family under arrest.
It took only a few salvos of artillery to disperse them before the early onset of darkness. There followed a wave of arrests which continued over the next weeks. After preliminary interrogation in the Winter Palace, where Nicholas himself participated in the arraignment of the ringleaders, they were incarcerated in the Peter-Paul Fortress.
On 17 December the Investigating Committee into the Decembrist affair convened for the first time and met on further occasions until its adjournment exactly six months later on 17 June The numbers arrested swelled early in January following the failure of the paraziticke rostliny Decembrist uprising, that of the Chernigov Regiment in Ukraine, led seed wart on foot pictures Southern Society members Sergei Muraviev-Apostol and Mikhail Bestuzhev-Ryumin.
Unlike the uprising in St Petersburg on 14 December, it extended over six days from 29 December. After some initial success the insurgents were eventually overwhelmed by the superior force of troops loyal to Nicholas I. Pavel Pestel played no part in either uprising, having been escorted from Tulchin to St Petersburg on 26 December following his arrest two weeks earlier. Having interrogated men, the Investigating Committee passed its findings in respect of prisoners to the Seed wart on foot pictures Criminal Court which imposed sentences of hard labour and Siberian exile seed wart on foot pictures to 11 categories of culpability.
Among these was Pavel Pestel. Infollowing the death of Nicholas I and to mark the coronation of Alexander II, the surviving Decembrists were amnestied and permitted to return to Russia from Siberia. In the meantime however, about two-thirds of them had perished in exile.
The Decembrists are considered to be the fathers and first martyrs of the Russian revolutionary movement because they were the first generation to combine an ideologically based assault on autocracy and serfdom with the resolve to achieve their goals by force.
The executions and the protracted sufferings of those exiled to Siberian lead mines added to the aura of martyrdom. As well as losing many of its brightest and best sons to the scaffold and Siberia, the Decembrist conspiracy impelled Tsar Nicholas I along a reactionary path from which for 30 years he never veered. It thereby accelerated the parting of the ways between the court of Nicholas I and those members of the nobility increasingly cancer renal definicion from it whose loyalty had hitherto been unwavering.
Autocratic power in Russia was more than ever suspicious of proposals for modernisation and change and so routinely rejected them. The result therefore, paradoxically, was to delay such long overdue social reform as the abolition of serfdom for which the Decembrists, and Pestel in particular, had agitated over 40 years before Alexander II at last decreed it in Among the earliest was N. Pavlov-Silvanskii whose page essay on him in the Russian Biographical Dictionary was a landmark in the still emergent historiography of the Seed wart on foot pictures movement.
Syroechkovskii — His pioneering work on Russian Justice, as well as that of S.
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N Chernov, N. Druzhinin and A. Pokrovskii, is discussed in Chapter 6. In some of her earlier articles, the doyenne of Soviet historiography on the Decembrist movement, M. The liabilities of the continuing ideological and organisational disunity between the Northern and Southern societies were played down and replaced by exaggerated and unsubstantiated claims of their harmony and seed wart on foot pictures revolutionary resolve.
There were exceptions to this tendency, in the works, for example, of S. Landa and V. Pugachev, which are discussed in due course. Semenova, has written several important articles, also listed in the Bibliography. However, apart from one or two popularising biographies, Pestel surprisingly has still not been the subject of a dedicated monograph.